Lifecycle Value: BEV vs. ICEV — Pickup Truck Version


My current article on the lifecycle price of BEVs vs ICEVs was properly acquired, so I believed I’d write one other one, this time taking a look at vehicles now that many OEMs are producing them — or are about to. A lifecycle price evaluation captures the complete monetary affect of BEVs throughout the automobile’s complete lifetime for all house owners. The extra widespread 5-year comparisons are nice, however they don’t seize the complete worth of the automobile to society. Clearly, BEVs proceed to offer advantages throughout their complete life with decrease gasoline prices, decrease upkeep prices, and doubtlessly longer life past the primary 5 years of their life. A full life-cycle price evaluation captures this.

My expectation going into this evaluation was that BEV truck financial savings can be even greater than for BEV vehicles since gasoline is such a key financial savings space for BEVs and vehicles use extra gasoline than vehicles. The extra gasoline an ICE automobile makes use of, the extra an analogous BEV “ought to” save — not less than in principle. Moreover, these financial savings ought to solely enhance if the proprietor tows or carries heavy hundreds usually, since gasoline consumption goes up dramatically underneath these situations whether or not you drive a BEV or an ICEV.

As I discussed in my final article on the lifecycle prices of BEVs, in my work as a administration marketing consultant, I discovered to write down my very own laptop modeling packages, since off-the-shelf software program for this type of factor doesn’t exist. To make sure my evaluation fashions will not be full BS, I attempt to management for all related variables, and I design the fashions in order that these variables will be simply adjusted. Thankfully, I used to be capable of finding fairly good data on the related specs for vehicles and on how folks use them — together with how a lot they tow and haul.


Buy Value — Buy worth varies by location and native incentives. I needed to extend the accuracy for this evaluation since truck pricing can range quite a bit relying on options and specs. For this evaluation, I chosen vehicles that had been all moderately outfitted, and I used California seller web site configurators to reach at pricing. I additionally embody the federal tax incentive of $7,500 in these fashions if they’re relevant. Clearly, pricing will range primarily based on location and particular person tax conditions, with some folks in a position to purchase for much less and a few paying extra.

Longevity (160,000 miles) — This quantity could seem low to some folks, because it did to me, however we want to remember we’re speaking about a mean. The worldwide fleet common accounts for autos which might be concerned in accidents and/or those who merely don’t obtain their full potential for no matter purpose. Individually, autos can after all last more, whether or not they’re BEVs or ICEVs. I ought to observe that rising or reducing this quantity a bit does probably not change the leads to any materials manner because it applies to all autos within the mannequin.

BEV Longevity — As mentioned final article, the concept BEVs last more than ICEVs is one thing business analysts proceed to debate. With extra knowledge turning into obtainable, business writers appear to be getting snug with the concept BEVs can final 50% longer or much more. Frequent sense suggests they need to last more, primarily based on their simplicity, however the reality is we do not need sufficient knowledge but to make certain. Once more, I can’t overthink this level and can merely embody two costing fashions, one the place the BEV lasts solely so long as an ICEV (160,000 miles) and one the place the BEV lasts 50% longer (240,000 miles). Readers can determine for themselves, and, both manner, they’ll see the affect if BEVs do show to final 50% longer.

Miles Pushed — I’m going to make use of a quantity a little bit above the US common (15,600 miles/12 months) since this can be a lifetime price mannequin and I needed to maintain the projection to fifteen years max (the US common is 13,500). In response to the Federal Freeway Administration (FHA), folks drive full and mid-size vehicles just about the identical variety of miles per 12 months as vehicles, so this quantity is a lot correct for this evaluation.

Towing & Hauling Miles — With about 3 million full and midsize vehicles offered yearly now, vehicles are clearly in style autos. The individuals who purchase them, nevertheless, appear to make use of them in a different way than one would assume. Should you had been to consider a number of the members in on-line BEV boards, you’d get the impression that truck patrons generally tow heavy hundreds 12 hours a day at 80 MPH. Additional, these drivers apparently by no means cease to eat or pee — presumably as a result of their time is so precious, I assume. Curiously, for many who worth actuality not less than, the info recommend a special story.

The consulting agency Strategic Imaginative and prescient surveys 250,000-people yearly to grasp, amongst different issues, how folks use their autos. Of their 2019 survey, they discovered {that a} full 75% of truck house owners solely tow annually or much less, and almost 70% solely go off-road annually or much less. Additional, 35% of truck house owners report utilizing their truck to haul stuff simply as soon as per 12 months or much less. Clearly, most truck patrons don’t tow, and so they actually don’t carry hundreds as a lot as one would assume.

For this evaluation, I once more gained’t overthink it and as a substitute I’ll provide 3 completely different towing fashions (low, medium, and excessive) to assist gauge the affect of towing. The low mannequin can be according to most traditional patrons towing 5% of the time, the medium mannequin is sort of excessive use at 25% of the time, and for enjoyable, the high-use mannequin will see the proprietor towing 50% of the time. I see 50% as approaching the utmost since presumably individuals who tow this a lot can be doing so commercially and would solely be loaded a technique. Irrespective of how a lot you personally tow, the financial pattern throughout these three fashions will probably be clear on this evaluation.

Salvage Worth — We do not need nice data on this variable, however, thankfully, it’s not a very materials variable within the mannequin. I used a variety between $2,000 and $8,000 complete, accounting for buy worth and battery dimension as applicable. Battery salvage worth is materials at $42/kWh in response to, however I selected to be conservative by limiting battery worth to simply $3,000 further.

Gas Economic system/Value — I used authorities EPA figures for gasoline economic system, plus the IEA 2022 US common costs for electrical energy and fuel at 14.9 cents/kWh for residence electrical energy, 25 cents/kWh for L3 charging, and $3.97/gallon for gasoline. Common Supercharger use is at present 20%, and residential charging 80%. Gas vary whereas towing was projected at 50% much less, as this appears typical for each BEVs and ICEVs relying on the aerodynamics and weight of the trailer. I ought to observe that particular person testers/publications weren’t constant of their outcomes, however 50% appeared probably the most affordable determine to make use of assuming affordable trailer aerodynamics, driving on the velocity restrict, and a trailer weight of round 6,500 lb.

Restore Prices — I used restore prices from and cross-referenced in opposition to different websites. We do not need nice knowledge but on BEV restore prices, however the knowledge we do have appears to recommend 50% decrease prices vs. comparable ICE vehicles as a conservative estimate. That mentioned, restore prices enhance with greater mileage, so a number of the fashions I’ll talk about find yourself with BEVs having the identical or greater restore prices of their later years on the highway.

Insurance coverage — Many on-line websites have good breakdowns for common insurance coverage charges. Insurance coverage is very variable on the particular person degree, so I simply used nationwide common prices for good drivers, permitting extra for the dearer autos on this group.

Financing — I assumed full financing on all autos at 60 months and 6.5% curiosity.

Vehicles In contrast — For this evaluation, I included two BEVs, the Rivian R1T LR and the Lightning ER, plus three moderately properly outfitted ICE vehicles at completely different worth factors — an F-150 XLT 3.5, an F-150 Platinum 5.0, and a Raptor R. I selected solely Ford vehicles to maintain issues easy since pricing and efficiency between truck manufacturers is actually the identical. I included the Rivian and Raptor as direct opponents and thought of the Lightning and F-150 Platinum to be comparable opponents. The F-150 XLT after all isn’t as properly outfitted, however it’s included as a less expensive possibility simply to see the way it carried out. I also needs to observe that in response to, the typical worth of a brand new F-150 is now $66,450.


Regular Towing Mannequin (5% Towing)

Similar Longevity Mannequin — The Lightning was the most cost effective truck on this group, at $111,780 over 10 years, saving about $20,000 over the F-150 XLT. In comparison with the extra equally outfitted F-150 Platinum, the Lightning saves $38,572. The Rivian proved a lot inexpensive than the Raptor, at $30,500 cheaper.

Plus-50% Longevity Mannequin — The Lightning on this mannequin got here in at $139,280 over 15 years, saving about $58,100 over the F-150 XLT, and $86,200 vs. the F-150 Platinum. The Rivian would save a large $109,300 vs. the Raptor over its life in response to the mannequin.

I ought to observe that to pretty examine prices for the plus-50% fashions, I merely multiplied ICEV prices by 1.5 in order that we had been immediately evaluating prices on the finish of 240,000 miles pushed both manner. The mathematics for the BEVs on this mannequin, nevertheless, isn’t merely 1.5 occasions the 10-year BEV prices, since restore prices go up considerably as autos age. These fashions, in truth, recommend BEV repairs towards the tip of their 240,000-mile life enhance above end-of-life ICEV restore/upkeep (at 160,000 miles). This may occasionally show greater than actuality for the BEVs, however I needed to be conservative.

As anticipated, the financial savings got here primarily from gasoline within the same-life mannequin plus a little bit from repairs, and from gasoline and automobile financial savings within the plus-50% mannequin. Insurance coverage and repairs had been roughly equal within the plus-50% mannequin.

Excessive Towing Mannequin (25% Towing)

Similar Longevity Mannequin — The Lightning saved about $21,900 over the F-150 XLT. In comparison with the extra equally outfitted F-150 Platinum, the Lightning saves $40,800, and Rivian would save $34,800 over the Raptor.

Plus-50% Longevity Mannequin — The Lightning on this mannequin would save about $61,100 over the F-150 XLT, and $89,570 vs. the F-150 Platinum, with Rivian saving $115,700 vs. the Raptor over its life.

As anticipated, the elevated gasoline financial savings on this mannequin resulted in a further $3,000–$6,000 financial savings over the baseline (regular towing) mannequin.

Loopy Excessive Towing Mannequin (50% Towing)

Similar Longevity Mannequin — The Lightning elevated its saving to about $24,300 over the F-150 XLT and to $43,500 over the Platinum. The Rivian likewise elevated its financial savings over the Raptor to $40,100.

Plus-50% Longevity Mannequin — The Lightning on this mannequin now saves $65,000 over the F-150 XLT, and $93,700 vs. the F-150 Platinum. The Rivian now saves $123,700 vs. the Raptor over its life.

Once more, as anticipated, rising gasoline use on account of towing merely resulted in even greater financial savings for BEV vehicles. The added financial savings over the baseline (regular towing) mannequin this time saved a further $7,000–$14,000.

400-mile towing day

I believed I’d embody a selected towing instance calculating the real-world time and gasoline price/financial savings of our BEVs over a protracted day of towing. Assumptions for this instance embody all vehicles beginning with a full tank earlier than leaving residence, one meal cease by which the BEVs had been unable to cost whereas refueling, time spent refueling, plus time spent to plug in/prime off gasoline on the finish of the day. Many BEV house owners after all would have the ability to cost whereas consuming, so extra time financial savings* for BEVs is probably going depending on the route.

For every automobile, I projected a 50% drop in EPA vary for your complete journey and allotted 30 miles reserve gasoline for all autos. I then calculated the variety of refueling stops wanted and time, assuming quick L3 EV charging/fuel refueling. Please observe the 30-mile reserve is sort of conservative, as that is 45 miles primarily based on the EPA estimate adjusting for a 50% drop in EPA vary. BEV charging on L3 chargers in the course of the route was estimated at 25 cents/kWh, which is the nationwide common.

The Lightning on this instance saves about $56 over the F150 XLT, and the Rivian is $144 much less vs. the Raptor R on this single day of towing. Time price for the BEVs ranged from 35 minutes for the Rivian to 1 hour and 20 minutes for the Lightning. The time “price” would after all be eradicated for the Rivian if the meal and one charging had been mixed, and would scale back the Lightning’s further time price to simply 35 minutes further.

What does this all imply?

Vehicles are costly — Irrespective of the way you take a look at it, vehicles are actually costly. One takeaway right here is that if you don’t want a truck, you might be positively higher off shopping for a automobile! As outlined in my earlier article on full lifecycle prices for vehicles, a Tesla Mannequin 3 is available in at simply $102,800 in these 15-year plus-50% fashions (which proved related in price to a Toyota Corolla). The Ford Lightning, the most cost effective truck on this group, as compared prices $139,280 underneath the identical mannequin — virtually $37,000 greater than the Mannequin 3!

BEV vehicles are comparatively low cost — We’ve got seen many 5-year analyses evaluating BEVs vs. ICEVs that reveal how the whole price of possession (TCO) for BEVs is decrease for related class autos, so this full lifecycle price evaluation is, as soon as once more, not shocking. The potential financial savings of shopping for a BEV on this class, nevertheless, proved to be a lot bigger than it was for vehicles. Somebody serious about an F-150 may save $65,000–$93,700 by shopping for a Lightning over a fuel F-150 if the plus-50% mannequin is legitimate!

This evaluation additionally means that the present and upcoming crop of recent battery-electric vehicles will simply outcompete ICE vehicles on price, and it isn’t even shut. Anybody serious about an electrical truck ought to definitely put their identify on a reservation listing now!

Why would anybody purchase a Raptor? — Raptors will not be actual work vehicles, and are arguably most like a Rivian R1T LR in school, efficiency, specs, in addition to worth. Individuals typically don’t purchase this class of truck to tow, however quite for his or her efficiency and off-road capabilities. They’re clearly costly toys, and as a toy, the Rivian is just extra highly effective, extra succesful, and massively cheaper than its ICEV opponents to personal. The Rivian purchaser may properly save as a lot as $109,300 over its life in response to the plus-50% life/regular towing mannequin. Plus, they might have extra highly effective, nicer driving, and arguably be extra succesful autos.

BEV vehicles will work for a lot of however not everybody — but — The 400-mile towing instance clearly demonstrates some critical limitations for the electrical vehicles modeled. The Lightning, whereas proving to be the most cost effective truck of the group, wanted to be refuelled each 130 miles when towing. Whereas this may occasionally work for some folks on very particular routes, it’s clearly not going to work for all. Longer-range electrical vehicles and/or dependable L3 chargers sited each 100 miles can be wanted to draw patrons who tow usually. Thankfully, as mentioned earlier on this article, most truck patrons tow lower than as soon as per 12 months, so vary will merely not be an enormous problem for many patrons. With even longer-range electrical vehicles like Cybertruck and the RAM 1500 REV hitting the market quickly, and with the IRA poised to extend the variety of L3 chargers nationwide, my wager is that this problem will probably be within the rear-view mirror very quickly! What do you guys assume?

By Luvhrtz


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